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Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América

Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América

Os Maltesers britânicos da Mars Candy virão oficialmente para os Estados Unidos em janeiro de 2017

Os doces britânicos são realmente melhores do que os americanos? Vamos descobrir.

Maltesers estão vindo para a América. Por décadas, o Reino Unido teve uma vantagem sobre a qualidade dos doces britânicos em relação aos doces americanos. Lá foi até grito sério por causa da queda na qualidade dos ovos de crème da British Cadbury, agora pertencentes aos americanos, no ano passado.

Os maltesers britânicos de propriedade da Mars estarão disponíveis nos Estados Unidos a partir de janeiro de 2017, informou a Brand Eating. Esses doces de malte com cobertura de chocolate podem ser semelhantes aos Whoppers da Hershey, mas os fãs de confeitaria notarão as diferenças de textura e sabor.

Os maltesers estarão disponíveis em embalagens individuais de 1,3 onças ($ 1,09– $ 1,39), caixas de teatro de 3 onças ($ 1– $ 1,70), sacos de 3,52 onças, banheiras de 14,5 onças ($ 4,99– $ 5,99) e banheiras de 31,1 onças ($ 9,48– $ 9,99 )

Os maltesers já estão disponíveis online e em cinemas selecionados, mas chegarão às prateleiras dos supermercados e das lojas de conveniência após o Ano Novo.


Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América - Receitas

REIMPRESSO COM PERMISSÃO

Uma série de quatro partes sobre os maiores grupos de emigrantes das Ilhas Britânicas à América Colonial. Eles eram: os PURITANOS que vieram, principalmente, de East Anglia para a Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts entre 1629 e 1640 os CAVALIERS E SERVOS que vieram, principalmente, do sul da Inglaterra para a Virgínia entre 1642 e 1675 os QUAKERS que vieram, principalmente, de as Midlands inglesas à Pensilvânia entre 1675 e 1725 e os SCOTCH-IRLANDESES que vieram, principalmente, dos condados fronteiriços inglês / escocês (às vezes via Irlanda do Norte) para a Virgínia (via Pensilvânia) entre 1717 e 1775.

Em ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se referiu a este segundo grupo de imigrantes como "Cavaleiros afligidos e servos contratados". À medida que prosseguirmos, acho que você verá por quê. Este foi um grupo de pessoas que emigrou principalmente dos condados do sudoeste inglês de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire e vários outros para a área da Baía de Chesapeake na Virgínia e Maryland entre 1642 e 1675, o período de pico sendo a década de 1650. O motivo dessa migração foi um pouco mais complicado. Os puritanos haviam assumido o controle da Inglaterra e os anglicanos agora estavam sendo perseguidos. Portanto, algumas das pessoas que partiram o fizeram por causa de perseguição religiosa, assim como os puritanos. Mas havia uma motivação secundária para alguns. As leis de herança na Inglaterra deram todos os bens imóveis ao filho mais velho da família. Alguns dos que deixaram a Inglaterra eram segundos ou terceiros filhos de famílias de "elite" que queriam ir para um lugar onde pudessem ter suas próprias terras.

No início, a Virgínia atraiu pessoas de origens religiosas mistas. Mas a principal religião era a Igreja da Inglaterra (Episcopal). Depois que a Virgínia se tornou uma colônia real, a Assembleia aprovou leis tornando a Igreja da Inglaterra a Igreja do Estado na Virgínia (1632). Com o passar do tempo, tornou-se cada vez mais difícil para pessoas de religiões dissidentes permanecerem na Virgínia.

Cerca de 25 por cento das pessoas nesta segunda migração eram da "elite" inglesa - elas tinham riqueza, posição social e educação na Inglaterra. Eles eram membros da Igreja Anglicana e eram realistas em sua política. Os outros 75% eram das classes mais baixas e vinham como servos, muitos como servos contratados, para trabalhar nas grandes plantações estabelecidas pelos "cavaleiros". Eram pobres, analfabetos e não qualificados. Imediatamente, havia um sistema de classes estabelecido na Virgínia que não existia e não teria sido aprovado na Nova Inglaterra. Nessa migração, os homens superavam as mulheres em cerca de 4 para 1. A maioria dos que vieram eram homens solteiros com idades entre 15 e 24 anos.

Os sentimentos familiares eram tão fortes neste grupo quanto entre os puritanos, mas diferentes em substância. Havia muito mais ênfase na família extensa. Os membros da mesma família alargada tendiam a se estabelecer juntos e a ficar perto uns dos outros. A unidade de residência era a família nuclear, mas a unidade de associação era a família extensa. Eles se reuniram em bairros e enterraram seus mortos em terrenos familiares. (Ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde havia cemitérios comuns em cada cidade.) Os termos "irmão" e "primo" eram usados ​​de forma mais livre - e nem sempre podem ser interpretados literalmente quando encontrados em registros. As famílias frequentemente incluíam criados, hóspedes e hóspedes. Todos foram tratados como família, desde que estivessem na mesma casa. Os virginianos não pareciam desconfiar de estranhos como os da Nova Inglaterra.

Na Virgínia, as famílias tendiam a ser menores - principalmente porque a taxa de mortalidade era muito maior. Houve mais relações de passos pelo mesmo motivo. Este grupo compartilhava do forte imperativo dos puritanos de se casar. Solteirões e solteironas foram condenados como antinaturais e perigosos para a sociedade. Mas o casamento não era um contrato como na Nova Inglaterra era uma união indissolúvel, um nó sagrado que não podia ser desatado. Todos os casamentos eram realizados na igreja estatal (anglicana) e o divórcio não era permitido. Havia 5 etapas exigidas para o casamento: casamento, proclamas, cerimônia religiosa, festa de casamento, consumação sexual. Foi necessária uma permissão por escrito dos pais. O amor não era considerado necessário antes do casamento. Quando não ocorreu antes, esperava-se que ocorresse. Os pais tiveram um papel ativo nas decisões de casamento, mas geralmente não forçavam um filho a se casar contra sua vontade. Os casamentos de primos em primeiro grau eram aceitáveis ​​na Virgínia e aconteciam com frequência. Isso seguiu seu padrão de "mantê-lo na família". Os banquetes de casamento eram elaborados - ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde não eram permitidos. A idade média de casamento para um homem era quase a mesma da Nova Inglaterra, 25-26, mas para as mulheres era mais jovem, 18-20. Alguns homens não se casaram porque simplesmente não havia mulheres suficientes para todos. As relações sexuais deveriam se limitar ao casamento, mas as punições não eram tão severas como na Nova Inglaterra e as mulheres eram punidas mais severamente do que os homens.

Os padrões de nomenclatura para crianças seguiram os costumes do sudoeste da Inglaterra. Os filhos geralmente recebiam nomes de membros da família, mas em um padrão diferente do da Nova Inglaterra. O filho mais velho recebeu o nome de seu avô paterno, o próximo filho do avô materno e a seguir do pai. O mesmo padrão foi usado para meninas. Eles usavam menos nomes bíblicos do que na Nova Inglaterra e freqüentemente chamavam os filhos de Reis e Cavaleiros - os favoritos eram Robert, Richard, Edward, George e Charles. Eles também usaram nomes de santos cristãos não encontrados na Bíblia e nomes folclóricos ingleses - os favoritos eram Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances e Alice. Mas os nomes bíblicos de Maria, Isabel e Sara eram tão populares quanto na Nova Inglaterra. O batismo infantil era praticado.

Os pais da Virgínia eram mais indulgentes do que os da Nova Inglaterra. Na verdade, as crianças eram encorajadas a serem obstinadas, mas também se esperava que observassem alguns rituais bastante elaborados de autocontrole. A ideia do patriarca mais velho era muito forte e muitos rituais também a rodeavam. Havia poucas escolas. As crianças da classe elite eram educadas em casa e os pobres continuavam analfabetos. Não havia municípios como na Nova Inglaterra. As pessoas se estabeleceram em plantações e havia pequenas vilas com mercado.

A melhor fonte de registros é a Igreja Episcopal, onde todos os batismos, casamentos e mortes foram registrados. Houve um período de cerca de 100 anos em que todos tiveram que fazer essas coisas na igreja estatal, mesmo que não fossem membros.

Se você gostaria de estudar esses grupos com mais profundidade, recomendo que leia o livro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Muito (mas não todo) o material deste "Receita" é desse livro.


Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América - Receitas

REIMPRESSO COM PERMISSÃO

Uma série de quatro partes sobre os maiores grupos de emigrantes das Ilhas Britânicas à América Colonial. Eles eram: os PURITANOS que vieram, principalmente, de East Anglia para a Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts entre 1629 e 1640 os CAVALIERS E SERVOS que vieram, principalmente, do sul da Inglaterra para a Virgínia entre 1642 e 1675 os QUAKERS que vieram, principalmente, de as Midlands inglesas à Pensilvânia entre 1675 e 1725 e os SCOTCH-IRLANDESES que vieram, principalmente, dos condados fronteiriços inglês / escocês (às vezes via Irlanda do Norte) para a Virgínia (via Pensilvânia) entre 1717 e 1775.

Em ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se referiu a este segundo grupo de imigrantes como "Cavaleiros afligidos e servos contratados". À medida que prosseguirmos, acho que você verá por quê. Este foi um grupo de pessoas que emigrou principalmente dos condados do sudoeste inglês de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire e vários outros para a área da Baía de Chesapeake na Virgínia e Maryland entre 1642 e 1675, o período de pico sendo a década de 1650. O motivo dessa migração foi um pouco mais complicado. Os puritanos haviam assumido o controle da Inglaterra e os anglicanos agora estavam sendo perseguidos. Portanto, algumas das pessoas que partiram o fizeram por causa de perseguição religiosa, assim como os puritanos. Mas havia uma motivação secundária para alguns. As leis de herança na Inglaterra deram todos os bens imóveis ao filho mais velho da família. Alguns dos que deixaram a Inglaterra eram segundos ou terceiros filhos de famílias de "elite" que queriam ir para um lugar onde pudessem ter suas próprias terras.

No início, a Virgínia atraiu pessoas de origens religiosas mistas. Mas a principal religião era a Igreja da Inglaterra (Episcopal). Depois que a Virgínia se tornou uma colônia real, a Assembleia aprovou leis tornando a Igreja da Inglaterra a Igreja do Estado na Virgínia (1632). Com o passar do tempo, tornou-se cada vez mais difícil para pessoas de religiões dissidentes permanecerem na Virgínia.

Cerca de 25 por cento das pessoas nesta segunda migração eram da "elite" inglesa - elas tinham riqueza, posição social e educação na Inglaterra. Eles eram membros da Igreja Anglicana e eram realistas em sua política. Os outros 75% eram das classes mais baixas e vinham como servos, muitos como servos contratados, para trabalhar nas grandes plantações estabelecidas pelos "cavaleiros". Eram pobres, analfabetos e não qualificados. Imediatamente, havia um sistema de classes estabelecido na Virgínia que não existia e não teria sido aprovado na Nova Inglaterra. Nessa migração, os homens superaram as mulheres em cerca de 4 para 1. A maioria dos que vieram eram homens solteiros com idades entre 15 e 24 anos.

Os sentimentos familiares eram tão fortes neste grupo quanto entre os puritanos, mas diferentes em substância. Havia muito mais ênfase na família extensa. Os membros da mesma família alargada tendiam a se estabelecer juntos e a ficar perto uns dos outros. A unidade de residência era a família nuclear, mas a unidade de associação era a família extensa. Eles se reuniram em bairros e enterraram seus mortos em terrenos familiares. (Ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde havia cemitérios comuns em cada cidade.) Os termos "irmão" e "primo" eram usados ​​de forma mais livre - e nem sempre podem ser interpretados literalmente quando encontrados em registros. As famílias frequentemente incluíam criados, hóspedes e visitantes. Todos foram tratados como família, desde que estivessem na mesma casa. Os virginianos não pareciam desconfiar de estranhos como os da Nova Inglaterra.

Na Virgínia, as famílias tendiam a ser menores - principalmente porque a taxa de mortalidade era muito maior. Houve mais relações de passos pelo mesmo motivo. Esse grupo compartilhava do forte imperativo dos puritanos de se casar. Solteirões e solteironas foram condenados como antinaturais e perigosos para a sociedade. Mas o casamento não era um contrato como na Nova Inglaterra era uma união indissolúvel, um nó sagrado que não podia ser desatado. Todos os casamentos eram realizados na igreja estatal (anglicana) e o divórcio não era permitido. Havia 5 etapas exigidas para o casamento: casamento, proclamas, cerimônia religiosa, festa de casamento, consumação sexual. Foi necessária uma permissão por escrito dos pais. O amor não era considerado necessário antes do casamento. Quando não ocorreu antes, esperava-se que ocorresse. Os pais tiveram um papel ativo nas decisões de casamento, mas geralmente não forçavam um filho a se casar contra sua vontade. Os casamentos de primos em primeiro grau eram aceitáveis ​​na Virgínia e aconteciam com frequência. Isso seguiu seu padrão de "mantê-lo na família". Os banquetes de casamento eram elaborados - ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde não eram permitidos. A idade média de casamento para um homem era aproximadamente a mesma da Nova Inglaterra, 25-26, mas para as mulheres era mais jovem, 18-20. Alguns homens não se casaram porque simplesmente não havia mulheres suficientes para todos. As relações sexuais deveriam se limitar ao casamento, mas as punições não eram tão severas como na Nova Inglaterra e as mulheres eram punidas mais severamente do que os homens.

Os padrões de nomenclatura para crianças seguiram os costumes do sudoeste da Inglaterra. Os filhos costumavam receber nomes de membros da família, mas em um padrão diferente do da Nova Inglaterra. O filho mais velho recebeu o nome de seu avô paterno, o próximo filho do avô materno e a seguir do pai. O mesmo padrão foi usado para meninas. Eles usavam menos nomes bíblicos do que na Nova Inglaterra e freqüentemente chamavam os filhos de Reis e Cavaleiros - os favoritos eram Robert, Richard, Edward, George e Charles. Eles também usaram nomes de santos cristãos não encontrados na Bíblia e nomes folclóricos ingleses - os favoritos eram Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances e Alice. Mas os nomes bíblicos de Maria, Isabel e Sara eram tão populares quanto na Nova Inglaterra. O batismo infantil era praticado.

Os pais da Virgínia eram mais indulgentes do que os da Nova Inglaterra. Na verdade, as crianças eram encorajadas a serem obstinadas, mas também se esperava que observassem alguns rituais bastante elaborados de autocontrole. A ideia do patriarca mais velho era muito forte e muitos rituais também a rodeavam. Havia poucas escolas. As crianças da classe elite eram educadas em casa e os pobres continuavam analfabetos. Não havia municípios como na Nova Inglaterra. As pessoas se estabeleceram em plantações e havia pequenas vilas com mercado.

A melhor fonte de registros é a Igreja Episcopal, onde todos os batismos, casamentos e mortes foram registrados. Houve um período de cerca de 100 anos em que todos tiveram que fazer essas coisas na igreja estatal, mesmo que não fossem membros.

Se você quiser estudar esses grupos com mais profundidade, recomendo que leia o livro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Muito (mas não todo) o material deste "Receita" é desse livro.


Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América - Receitas

REIMPRESSO COM PERMISSÃO

Uma série de quatro partes sobre os maiores grupos de emigrantes das Ilhas Britânicas à América Colonial. Eles eram: os PURITANOS que vieram, principalmente, de East Anglia para a Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts entre 1629 e 1640 os CAVALIERS E SERVOS que vieram, principalmente, do sul da Inglaterra para a Virgínia entre 1642 e 1675 os QUAKERS que vieram, principalmente, de as Midlands inglesas à Pensilvânia entre 1675 e 1725 e os SCOTCH-IRLANDESES que vieram, principalmente, dos condados fronteiriços inglês / escocês (às vezes via Irlanda do Norte) para a Virgínia (via Pensilvânia) entre 1717 e 1775.

Em ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se referiu a este segundo grupo de imigrantes como "Cavaleiros afligidos e servos contratados". À medida que prosseguirmos, acho que você verá por quê. Este foi um grupo de pessoas que emigrou principalmente dos condados do sudoeste inglês de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire e vários outros para a área da Baía de Chesapeake na Virgínia e Maryland entre 1642 e 1675, o período de pico sendo a década de 1650. O motivo dessa migração foi um pouco mais complicado. Os puritanos haviam assumido o controle da Inglaterra e os anglicanos agora estavam sendo perseguidos. Portanto, algumas das pessoas que partiram o fizeram por causa de perseguição religiosa, assim como os puritanos. Mas havia uma motivação secundária para alguns. As leis de herança na Inglaterra deram todos os bens imóveis ao filho mais velho da família. Alguns dos que deixaram a Inglaterra eram segundos ou terceiros filhos de famílias de "elite" que queriam ir para um lugar onde pudessem ter suas próprias terras.

No início, a Virgínia atraiu pessoas de origens religiosas mistas. Mas a principal religião era a Igreja da Inglaterra (Episcopal). Depois que a Virgínia se tornou uma colônia real, a Assembleia aprovou leis tornando a Igreja da Inglaterra a Igreja do Estado na Virgínia (1632). Com o passar do tempo, tornou-se cada vez mais difícil para pessoas de religiões dissidentes permanecerem na Virgínia.

Cerca de 25 por cento das pessoas nesta segunda migração eram da "elite" inglesa - elas tinham riqueza, posição social e educação na Inglaterra. Eles eram membros da Igreja Anglicana e eram realistas em sua política. Os outros 75% eram das classes mais baixas e vinham como servos, muitos como servos contratados, para trabalhar nas grandes plantações estabelecidas pelos "cavaleiros". Eram pobres, analfabetos e não qualificados. Imediatamente, havia um sistema de classes estabelecido na Virgínia que não existia e não teria sido aprovado na Nova Inglaterra. Nessa migração, os homens superavam as mulheres em cerca de 4 para 1. A maioria dos que vieram eram homens solteiros com idades entre 15 e 24 anos.

Os sentimentos familiares eram tão fortes neste grupo quanto entre os puritanos, mas diferentes em substância. Havia muito mais ênfase na família extensa. Os membros da mesma família alargada tendiam a se estabelecer juntos e a ficar perto uns dos outros. A unidade de residência era a família nuclear, mas a unidade de associação era a família extensa. Eles se reuniram em bairros e enterraram seus mortos em terrenos familiares. (Ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde havia cemitérios comuns em cada cidade.) Os termos "irmão" e "primo" eram usados ​​de forma mais livre - e nem sempre podem ser tomados literalmente quando encontrados em registros. As famílias frequentemente incluíam criados, hóspedes e hóspedes. Todos foram tratados como família, desde que estivessem na mesma casa. Os virginianos não pareciam desconfiar de estranhos como os habitantes da Nova Inglaterra.

Na Virgínia, as famílias tendiam a ser menores - principalmente porque a taxa de mortalidade era muito maior. Houve mais relações de passos pelo mesmo motivo. Este grupo compartilhava do forte imperativo dos puritanos de se casar. Solteirões e solteironas foram condenados como antinaturais e perigosos para a sociedade. Mas o casamento não era um contrato como na Nova Inglaterra era uma união indissolúvel, um nó sagrado que não podia ser desatado. Todos os casamentos eram realizados na igreja estatal (anglicana) e o divórcio não era permitido. Havia 5 etapas exigidas para o casamento: casamento, proclamas, cerimônia religiosa, festa de casamento, consumação sexual. Foi necessária uma permissão por escrito dos pais. O amor não era considerado necessário antes do casamento. Quando não ocorreu antes, esperava-se que ocorresse. Os pais tiveram um papel ativo nas decisões de casamento, mas geralmente não forçavam um filho a se casar contra sua vontade. Os casamentos de primos em primeiro grau eram aceitáveis ​​na Virgínia e aconteciam com frequência. Isso seguiu seu padrão de "mantê-lo na família". Os banquetes de casamento eram elaborados - ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde não eram permitidos. A idade média de casamento para um homem era aproximadamente a mesma da Nova Inglaterra, 25-26, mas para as mulheres era mais jovem, 18-20. Alguns homens não se casaram porque simplesmente não havia mulheres suficientes para todos. As relações sexuais deveriam se limitar ao casamento, mas as punições não eram tão severas como na Nova Inglaterra e as mulheres eram punidas mais severamente do que os homens.

Os padrões de nomenclatura para crianças seguiram os costumes do sudoeste da Inglaterra. Os filhos costumavam receber nomes de membros da família, mas em um padrão diferente do da Nova Inglaterra. O filho mais velho foi batizado em homenagem ao avô paterno, o próximo filho ao avô materno e a seguir ao pai. O mesmo padrão foi usado para meninas. Eles usavam menos nomes bíblicos do que na Nova Inglaterra e freqüentemente chamavam os filhos de Reis e Cavaleiros - os favoritos eram Robert, Richard, Edward, George e Charles. Eles também usaram nomes de santos cristãos não encontrados na Bíblia e nomes folclóricos ingleses - os favoritos eram Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances e Alice. Mas os nomes bíblicos de Maria, Isabel e Sara eram tão populares quanto na Nova Inglaterra. O batismo infantil era praticado.

Os pais da Virgínia eram mais indulgentes do que os da Nova Inglaterra. Na verdade, as crianças eram encorajadas a serem obstinadas, mas também se esperava que observassem alguns rituais bastante elaborados de autocontrole. A ideia do patriarca mais velho era muito forte e muitos rituais também a rodeavam. Havia poucas escolas. As crianças da classe elite eram educadas em casa e os pobres continuavam analfabetos. Não havia municípios como na Nova Inglaterra. As pessoas se estabeleceram em plantações e havia pequenas vilas com mercado.

A melhor fonte de registros é a Igreja Episcopal, onde todos os batismos, casamentos e mortes foram registrados. Houve um período de cerca de 100 anos em que todos tiveram que fazer essas coisas na igreja estatal, mesmo que não fossem membros.

Se você quiser estudar esses grupos com mais profundidade, recomendo que leia o livro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Muito (mas não todo) o material deste "Receita" é desse livro.


Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América - Receitas

REIMPRESSO COM PERMISSÃO

Uma série de quatro partes sobre os maiores grupos de emigrantes das Ilhas Britânicas à América Colonial. Eles eram: os PURITANOS que vieram, principalmente, de East Anglia para a Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts entre 1629 e 1640 os CAVALIERS E SERVOS que vieram, principalmente, do sul da Inglaterra para a Virgínia entre 1642 e 1675 os QUAKERS que vieram, principalmente, de as Midlands inglesas à Pensilvânia entre 1675 e 1725 e os SCOTCH-IRLANDESES que vieram, principalmente, dos condados fronteiriços inglês / escocês (às vezes via Irlanda do Norte) para a Virgínia (via Pensilvânia) entre 1717 e 1775.

Em ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se referiu a este segundo grupo de imigrantes como "Cavaleiros afligidos e servos contratados". À medida que prosseguirmos, acho que você verá por quê. Este foi um grupo de pessoas que emigrou principalmente dos condados do sudoeste inglês de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire e vários outros para a área da Baía de Chesapeake na Virgínia e Maryland entre 1642 e 1675, o período de pico sendo a década de 1650. O motivo dessa migração foi um pouco mais complicado. Os puritanos haviam assumido o controle da Inglaterra e os anglicanos agora estavam sendo perseguidos. Portanto, algumas das pessoas que partiram o fizeram por causa de perseguição religiosa, assim como os puritanos. Mas havia uma motivação secundária para alguns. As leis de herança na Inglaterra deram todos os bens imóveis ao filho mais velho da família. Alguns dos que deixaram a Inglaterra eram segundos ou terceiros filhos de famílias de "elite" que queriam ir para um lugar onde pudessem ter suas próprias terras.

No início, a Virgínia atraiu pessoas de origens religiosas mistas. Mas a religião principal era a Igreja da Inglaterra (Episcopal). Depois que a Virgínia se tornou uma colônia real, a Assembleia aprovou leis tornando a Igreja da Inglaterra a Igreja do Estado na Virgínia (1632). Com o passar do tempo, tornou-se cada vez mais difícil para pessoas de religiões dissidentes permanecerem na Virgínia.

Cerca de 25 por cento das pessoas nesta segunda migração eram da "elite" inglesa - elas tinham riqueza, posição social e educação na Inglaterra. Eles eram membros da Igreja Anglicana e eram realistas em sua política. Os outros 75% eram das classes mais baixas e vinham como servos, muitos como servos contratados, para trabalhar nas grandes plantações estabelecidas pelos "cavaleiros". Eram pobres, analfabetos e não qualificados. Imediatamente, havia um sistema de classes estabelecido na Virgínia que não existia e não teria sido aprovado na Nova Inglaterra. Nessa migração, os homens superavam as mulheres em cerca de 4 para 1. A maioria dos que vieram eram homens solteiros com idades entre 15 e 24 anos.

Os sentimentos familiares eram tão fortes neste grupo quanto entre os puritanos, mas diferentes em substância. Havia muito mais ênfase na família extensa. Os membros da mesma família alargada tendiam a se estabelecer juntos e a ficar perto uns dos outros. A unidade de residência era a família nuclear, mas a unidade de associação era a família extensa. Eles se reuniram em bairros e enterraram seus mortos em terrenos familiares. (Ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde havia cemitérios comuns em cada cidade.) Os termos "irmão" e "primo" eram usados ​​de forma mais livre - e nem sempre podem ser tomados literalmente quando encontrados em registros. As famílias frequentemente incluíam empregados, hóspedes e visitantes. Todos foram tratados como família, desde que estivessem na mesma casa. Os virginianos não pareciam desconfiar de estranhos como os da Nova Inglaterra.

Na Virgínia, as famílias tendiam a ser menores - principalmente porque a taxa de mortalidade era muito maior. Houve mais relações de passos pelo mesmo motivo. Esse grupo compartilhava do forte imperativo dos puritanos de se casar. Solteirões e solteironas foram condenados como antinaturais e perigosos para a sociedade. Mas o casamento não era um contrato como na Nova Inglaterra era uma união indissolúvel, um nó sagrado que não podia ser desatado. Todos os casamentos eram realizados na igreja estatal (anglicana) e o divórcio não era permitido. Havia 5 etapas exigidas para o casamento: casamento, proclamas, cerimônia religiosa, festa de casamento, consumação sexual. Foi necessária uma permissão por escrito dos pais. O amor não era considerado necessário antes do casamento. Quando não ocorreu antes, esperava-se que ocorresse. Os pais tiveram um papel ativo nas decisões de casamento, mas geralmente não forçavam um filho a se casar contra sua vontade. Casamentos de primos em primeiro grau eram bons na Virgínia e aconteciam com frequência. Isso seguiu seu padrão de "mantê-lo na família". Os banquetes de casamento eram elaborados - ao contrário da Nova Inglaterra, onde não eram permitidos. A idade média de casamento para um homem era aproximadamente a mesma da Nova Inglaterra, 25-26, mas para as mulheres era mais jovem, 18-20. Alguns homens não se casaram porque simplesmente não havia mulheres suficientes para todos. As relações sexuais deveriam se limitar ao casamento, mas as punições não eram tão severas como na Nova Inglaterra e as mulheres eram punidas mais severamente do que os homens.

Os padrões de nomenclatura para crianças seguiram os costumes do sudoeste da Inglaterra. Os filhos geralmente recebiam nomes de membros da família, mas em um padrão diferente do da Nova Inglaterra. O filho mais velho recebeu o nome de seu avô paterno, o próximo filho do avô materno e a seguir do pai. O mesmo padrão foi usado para meninas. Eles usavam menos nomes bíblicos do que na Nova Inglaterra e freqüentemente chamavam os filhos de Reis e Cavaleiros - os favoritos eram Robert, Richard, Edward, George e Charles. Eles também usaram nomes de santos cristãos não encontrados na Bíblia e nomes folclóricos ingleses - os favoritos eram Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances e Alice. Mas os nomes bíblicos de Maria, Isabel e Sara eram tão populares quanto na Nova Inglaterra. O batismo infantil era praticado.

Os pais da Virgínia eram mais indulgentes do que os da Nova Inglaterra. Na verdade, as crianças eram encorajadas a serem obstinadas, mas também se esperava que observassem alguns rituais bastante elaborados de autocontrole. A ideia do patriarca mais velho era muito forte e muitos rituais também a rodeavam. Havia poucas escolas. As crianças da classe elite eram educadas em casa e os pobres continuavam analfabetos. Não havia municípios como na Nova Inglaterra. As pessoas se estabeleceram em plantações e havia pequenas vilas com mercado.

A melhor fonte de registros é a Igreja Episcopal, onde todos os batismos, casamentos e mortes foram registrados. Houve um período de cerca de 100 anos em que todos tiveram que fazer essas coisas na igreja estatal, mesmo que não fossem membros.

Se você quiser estudar esses grupos com mais profundidade, recomendo que leia o livro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Muito (mas não todo) o material deste "Receita" é desse livro.


Este famoso doce britânico está chegando à América - Receitas

REIMPRESSO COM PERMISSÃO

Uma série de quatro partes sobre os maiores grupos de emigrantes das Ilhas Britânicas à América Colonial. Eles eram: os PURITANOS que vieram, principalmente, de East Anglia para a Colônia da Baía de Massachusetts entre 1629 e 1640 os CAVALIERS E SERVOS que vieram, principalmente, do sul da Inglaterra para a Virgínia entre 1642 e 1675 os QUAKERS que vieram, principalmente, de as Midlands inglesas à Pensilvânia entre 1675 e 1725 e os SCOTCH-IRLANDESES que vieram, principalmente, dos condados fronteiriços inglês / escocês (às vezes via Irlanda do Norte) para a Virgínia (via Pensilvânia) entre 1717 e 1775.

Em ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se referiu a este segundo grupo de imigrantes como "Cavaleiros afligidos e servos contratados". À medida que prosseguirmos, acho que você verá por quê. Este foi um grupo de pessoas que emigrou principalmente dos condados do sudoeste inglês de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire e vários outros para a área da Baía de Chesapeake na Virgínia e Maryland entre 1642 e 1675, o período de pico sendo a década de 1650. O motivo dessa migração foi um pouco mais complicado. Os puritanos haviam assumido o controle da Inglaterra e os anglicanos agora estavam sendo perseguidos. Portanto, algumas das pessoas que partiram o fizeram por causa de perseguição religiosa, assim como os puritanos. Mas havia uma motivação secundária para alguns. As leis de herança na Inglaterra deram todos os bens imóveis ao filho mais velho da família. Alguns dos que deixaram a Inglaterra eram segundos ou terceiros filhos de famílias de "elite" que queriam ir para um lugar onde pudessem ter suas próprias terras.

No início, a Virgínia atraiu pessoas de origens religiosas mistas. Mas a principal religião era a Igreja da Inglaterra (Episcopal). Depois que a Virgínia se tornou uma colônia real, a Assembleia aprovou leis tornando a Igreja da Inglaterra a Igreja do Estado na Virgínia (1632). Com o passar do tempo, tornou-se cada vez mais difícil para pessoas de religiões dissidentes permanecerem na Virgínia.

Cerca de 25 por cento das pessoas nesta segunda migração eram da "elite" inglesa - elas tinham riqueza, posição social e educação na Inglaterra. Eles eram membros da Igreja Anglicana e eram realistas em sua política. Os outros 75% eram das classes mais baixas e vinham como servos, muitos como servos contratados, para trabalhar nas grandes plantações estabelecidas pelos "cavaleiros". Eram pobres, analfabetos e não qualificados. Imediatamente, havia um sistema de classes estabelecido na Virgínia que não existia e não teria sido aprovado na Nova Inglaterra. Nessa migração, os homens superaram as mulheres em cerca de 4 para 1. A maioria dos que vieram eram homens solteiros com idades entre 15 e 24 anos.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.